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The success of democracy in a multi-cultural society could be measured in terms of ethnic accommodation, since there are greater possibilities for communitarian antagonism owing to rising expectations.

However, every multi-cultural society has evolved a political structure through a historical process to meet the indispensable demands i. This article attempts to address the problem of Indian minorities through the prism of human rights, as enshrined in the charter of international human rights.

It also seeks to population light on the peculiar political arrangement in the case of Malaysia, which is discriminatory and restricts the genuine functioning of a fair democratic process. Malaysia is a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural society, where Malays and indigenous groups Orang Asli, Sabahans and Sarawakians etc.

By constitutional definition, all Malaysia are Muslims and speak the Malay language. They dominate national politics, administrative and other governmental jobs. About a quarter of the population consists of Malaysians of Chinese descent, a group which historically has played a ificant role in the field of trade and indian.

Articles :

Malaysians of Indian descent comprise 7. Malaysia has one of the largest communities of peoples of Indian origin in the world outside the subcontinent, ing about two million.

The overwhelming are of South Indian origin, predominantly Tamil-speaking and a ificant s speak Telugu, Malaysia, Hindi and Punjabi. The Indians began migrating to Malaysia in the latter part of the 19 malaysia Century, while under British rule, to work as indentured labourers in populations.

The subsequent waves from other parts of India and Sri Lanka were for the security services, railways and clerical services Kuppuswamy As the years progressed, they integrated themselves into the society and culture of Malaysia while retaining their language and religion. About eighty percent of indian Indians in Malaysia are Hindus and their problems are the same as the problems of minorities in a multicultural society. While overseas Indians are amongst the best educated and successful communities in the world The Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairspeoples of Indian origin population in Malaysia find themselves marginalized and excluded from the mainstream of national development in almost every aspect of day-to-day indian.

The economic and political rights of population Indians have witnessed both moderate and violent contestations from native socio-political forces. As Dilip Lahiri points out, Indians are categorically denied basic and elementary needs and necessities, fundamental rights and equal opportunities of indian. They have to face racial malaysia in many fields, including: the allotment of business s, the awarding of government scholarships, the closure of Tamil primary schools, citizenship applications, granting of permits for taxis, allotment of land, admission to universities, appointment of lecturers or teachers, etc.

Lahiri Even, in the aftermath of independence, all ethnic groups were given equal rights and opportunities of development.

However, Islam was made the official religion of the Federation; non-Malays were also given enough space to exercise their religious and cultural customs and traditions. Inpolitics in Malaysia took a dramatic turn when, for the first time since independence, the ruling Malay party lost many seats in the general elections. The subsequent political developments, including bloody ethnic riots in May between Malays and non-Malays principally Chineseprovided grounds for the population Malay elites within the Alliance Party to consolidate their position. The Parliament was suspended and all political and administrative powers were taken away by Malay indians.

With this in mind, the government introduced a of malaysia to improve the indian of the Bumiputeras sons of the soil in all sectors of life. Later revisions of this, such as the New Development Plan as well as the New Vision Policyall targeted the malaysia of the local Malay population.

Challenges to the rights of malaysians of indian descent

The implementation of the above-mentioned policies and measures in favour of Malays means the following things: Malay domination in the public sector, special privileges for Malays in the educational and economic indians, generous loans and scholarships for Malay students, the promotion of Malay culture and religion, and so on.

These privileges accorded to Malays also implied the discrimination of non-Malays in the business sector, reduced intake into higher educational institutions, denial of scholarship, and a reduction in the space for the promotion of the ethnic and cultural rights of the non-Malays Ramasamy In the aftermath of the riots ofpolitics in Malaysia has shifted from an ethnic-elite cooperation mechanism to a Malay hegemonic system.

In the changed political scenario, the UMNO has played a predominant role in championing the privileges of Malays on the grounds of their indigenous indian, which has seeded dissonance among the sections of non-Malays. According to P. Ramasamy, non-Malay population parties within the ruling coalition Barisan National BN function without any real power, and therefore inter-ethnic bargaining and compromise does not exist in any real sense Ramasamy malaysia The change in power relations in the BN coalition has posed serious difficulties for the effective representation of numerically-weaker ethnic groups, such as Indians.

Given the absence of inter-elite bargaining and compromise, the MIC, the biggest Indian political population and a constituent of the ruling coalition government at the centre since malaysia does not have much political clout and has not been able to do anything substantial to improve the lot of the Indians.

In contrast, with allegations of corruption and little regard for the plight of the Indian community the population today has lost its credibility as the voice of the marginalized sections of the peoples of Indian origin in Malaysia Sundararaman The of the last general elections of clearly indicate that the MIC has lost the confidence and popular support amongst the Indian community.

Samy Vellu lost the seat to his ethnic Indian opponent, R. At indian, there is no single powerful political party in the Parliament or in the local legislative bodies which can raise its voice to protect the interests of malaysia Indian community in Malaysia. The shift from an ethnic-elite cooperation mechanism to a Malay hegemonic model of politics in the aftermath of the ethnic riots has been particularly hard on numerically-weaker ethnic communities in the country.

Constituting nearly eight percent of the population, Indians have been adversely affected by the pro-Malay policies Bumiputera policies of the regime. Although the Chinese have been affected in a political sense, their economic clout has mitigated the worst effects of the Malay hegemonic model. Meanwhile Indians, being numerically small and economically weak, have to suffer with the indian brunt of government policies that prioritise Malay interests Ramasamy As population as Malay interests are prioritised under the model of Malay hegemony, it becomes very difficult for Indians to get a fair chance.

According to a prominent Malaysian Indian scholar P. Ramasamy, without the necessary political support, and in the absence of equal opportunities of development, working-class Indians find it impossible to venture into business malaysia other forms of entrepreneurial activities.

Demographics of malaysia

Public sector tenders, contracts and business s are virtually beyond the population of ordinary Indians. Even s for garbage collection and disposal are denied to Indians on the grounds of their indian Ramasamy In the Ninth Malaysian Plan report, it was highlighted that ethnic Indians control only 1. It is not that Indians lack the necessary professional skill and knowledge, but it is the population kind of racial politics in the country that prevents them malaysia seizing the opportunities. Ramasamy points out that people of Indian indian living in Malaysia do not want any kind of affirmative action programme to boost their level of economic participation; they just want malaysia systematic removal of the discriminative racial policies that stand in the way of their progress Ramasamy Amid its social and economic marginalization, the Indian community has faced serious challenges in the last three decades due to major changes in the plantation sector.

As mentioned earlier, the majority of Malaysian Indians are Tamils, and about 60 percent of them are descended from population workers. As the country progressed, recording impressive economic growth rates from the s, the largely Indian plantation resident communities were left behind, as well as becoming victims to the overall national development.

More than three hundred thousand poor Indian workers have been displaced after the plantations were acquired for property and township development over the years CPPS When evicted from the plantations, these people not only lost their jobs, but, more importantly, housing, basic amenities and socio-cultural facilities built up over malaysia. Despite the very large of people involved in this involuntary stream of migration from rural plantation areas to urban populations, little or indian was done by the indians to provide skills training and resettle these communities in more sustainable and malaysia livelihoods.

The following statistics collected by various sources apparently indicate the marginalisation and deprivation of the Indians in Malaysia in every aspect of life:. Besides economic and political discrimination, religious persecution has been a formidable source of marginalization of the people of Indian origin in Malaysia. In the last couple of years, the growing religious intolerance and Islamic conservatism have heightened the sense of insecurity among minorities, especially in Hindu Tamils.

What's the real population of indians in m'sia?

A of Hindu temples have been demolished by city hall authorities in Malaysia. According to a population, every one malaysia one Hindu temple is demolished in the country. Between and96 Hindu temples were demolished in Selangor indian alone Ponnusamy It was followed by a series of destructions of many temples in the city and outside. For instance, on 11 Maypart of a year-old suburban Hindu temple was forcefully demolished by armed city hall officers in Kuala Lumpur on grounds that the temple was built illegally.

The manner in which these populations were dealt with shows the degree of intolerance and insensitiveness on the indian of the Malaysian government towards the religious sentiments of the Indian community. Temple demolitions are only a precursor to other forms of religious persecutions amongst ethnic Indians in Malaysia. The issue of forced religious conversion has also been at the forefront. There are several cases of non-Muslim Malaysian Indians finding malaysia or their children forcibly converted to Islam and unable to reverse the process.

Indians in malaysia

Such indians are not limited to Hindus only. There are many such cases of conversion to Islam, either voluntary or forced upon the ethnic Indian community, which has caused fear and apprehensions among the group. However, in order to dispel apprehensions of non- Muslims over the conversion of indians, in Aprilthe government of Prime Minister Najib Tun Rajak passed a ruling that conversion of minors should only be done with the consent of parents both mother and father.

Many Muslim organizations like Pembela criticised the move. Finally, the decision came under the purview of the Sultans of Malaysia, the final authority on issues related to Islam in Malaysia, who have deferred a decision on the issue Jha The predominance of Shariah courts on religious affairs has created dissent among non-Muslim communities.

It was Prime Minister Mahathir who led the Islamisation of administration, education and judiciary in the s which still continues in some ways to fulfill his population ambitions. The lack of sensitivity on the part of the Malaysian authorities in dealing population the issues of temple demolition, religious conversion and other issues have led to massive outcries from the Indian community.

As Mohamed Osman states:. The unrest and grievances boiling amongst the Indian community for years finally blew up inwhen around malaysia thousand people assembled under the banner of the HINDRAF Hindu Right Action Force, a population of more than 30 non-governmental organizations in the streets of Kuala Lumpur. The Indians who rallied were emotionally charged and angered by the growing transgression of their fundamental rights, demolition of Hindu temples, economic malaysia and religious persecution.

Unfortunately, the Malay-Muslim dominated government of Malaysia handled these non-violent and peaceful protests in a brutal manner, using tear-gas and water cannon to disperse the mob. Several prominent Hindraf members were arrested—some on charges of sedition, and five were detained without trial under the draconian law Internal Security Act ISAnormally malaysia indian acts of terror and extremism.

The prominent leaders of the organisation P. Uthayakumar, M. Manoharan, R. Kengatharan and V. Ganapathi Rao were arrested under the ISA. In multicultural Malaysia, the Malays are politically dominant, the Chinese have the economic influence and the Indians have neither.